Essay on Language Families of the World
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Essay on Language Families of the World

Published by: Fernando Gonsales (2)
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Language studying ​​of the world is particularly important because the language is usually placed in the classification of peoples (ethnic groups). The genealogy of their essence is called ethno-linguistic classification and based on the principle languages kinship. Higher taxonomic unit in this classification serves a family of languages. Second taxonomic units form a group of closely related languages, the third form their branches (subgroups) and the fourth is for the individual languages.

There are about 20 whole language families. The largest of them is Indo-European family, whose language spoken by about 45% of the total world population. The area of ​​its distribution is also the largest. It covers Europe, South-West and South Asia, North and South America and Australia. The largest group within this family is Indo-Aryan, which includes Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Punjabi, etc. Very large is the Romanesque group, including Spanish, Italian, French and other languages. The same can be said about the German group (English, German and other languages), a group of Slavic (Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Polish, Czech, Bulgarian, etc.), the Iranian group (Persian, Tajik, Baluchi, etc.).

The second largest speakers group is Sino-Tibetan (Sino-Tibetan) family, whose language is used by 22% of all inhabitants of the planet. It is clear that such a large share of the world provides Chinese language.
Among the major languages African family is also included (common in Africa, sub-Saharan Africa), Afro-Asiatic family (mainly in the Middle East), Austronesia family (mainly in Southeast Asia and Oceania), Dravidian family (in South Asia), the Altaic family (in Asia and Europe).

When the ethno linguistic classification of languages is used, the one ​​should bear in mind two additional circumstances. The first is the fact that the geographical boundaries of the spread of language families and groups throughout history have repeatedly changed and continue to change at the moment, although not as significantly, change in our day. Secondly, we should keep in the mind the fact that this classification is still far from perfect.

So, there is complete clarity on the question how families should be included even some well-studied languages ​​(Japanese, Korean). And many languages ​​spoken in sub-Saharan Africa, South-East Asia, Oceania, America’s Indian languages ​​in general are still poorly understood. We should also take into account that some of the modern languages ​​of small numbers of people actually fall into the category of endangered.  Moreover, there is almost 2 / 3 of all the languages ​​of the modern world, which are just speaking and not have their writing form.

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