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Food food science food technology food Engineering

Published by: Justin (1)
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The study of food science emphasises on the composition of foods and the changes that occur when they subjected to food processing. Functional foods are foods that promote health beyond providing basic nutrition. Our nutritional status, health, physical and mental faculties depend on the food we eat and how we eat it. Access to good quality food has been man’s main endeavour from the earliest days of human existence. Safety of food is a basic requirement of food quality. “Food safety“ implies absence or acceptable and safe levels of contaminants, adulterants, naturally occurring toxins or any other substance that may make food injurious to health on an acute or chronic basis. Food quality can be considered as a complex characteristic of food that determines its value or acceptability to consumers. Besides safety, quality attributes include: nutritional value; organoleptic properties such as appearance, colour, texture, taste; and functional properties. Food systems in developing countries are not always as well organised and developed as in the industrialised world. Moreover, problems of growing population, urbanisation, lack of resources to deal with pre- and post- harvest losses in food, and problems of environmental and food hygiene mean that food systems in developing countries continueto be stressed, adversely affecting quality and safety of food supplies. There are three types of microorganisms that cause food spoilage -- yeasts, moulds and bacteria.  

  1. Yeasts growth causes fermentation which is the result of yeast metabolism. There are two types of yeasts true yeast and false yeast. True yeast metabolizes sugar producing alcohol and carbon dioxide gas. This is known as fermentation. False yeast grows as a dry film on a food surface, such as on pickle brine. False yeast occurs in foods that have a high sugar or high acid environment.  
  2. Moulds grow in filaments forming a tough mass which is visible as `mould growth’. Moulds form spores which, when dry, float through the air to find suitable conditions where they can start the growth cycle again.  
  3. Bacteria are round, rod or spiral shaped microorganisms. Bacteria may grow under a wide variety of conditions. There are many types of bacteria that cause spoilage. They can be divided into: spore-forming and nonspore-forming. Bacteria generally prefer low acid foods like vegetables and meat

 Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages.Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, warehousing, logistics, sale, and end use.

Objectives for Packaging and labelling

  1. Physical protection - The objects enclosed in the package may require protection from, among other things, shock, vibration, compression, temperature, etc.
  2. Barrier protection - A barrier from oxygen, water vapor, dust, etc., is often required.
  3. Containment or agglomeration - Small objects are typically grouped together in one package for reasons of efficiency. For example, a single box of 1000 pens requires less physical handling than 1000 single pens. Liquids, powders, and granules need containment.
  4. Information transmission - Packages and labels communicate how to use, transport, recycle, or dispose of the package or product.
  5. Marketing - The packaging and labels can be used by marketers to encourage potential buyers to purchase the product.
  6. Security - Packaging can play an important role in reducing the security risks of shipment.
  7. Convenience - Packages can have features which add convenience in distribution, handling, stacking, display, sale, opening, closing, use, and reuse.
Justin - About the Author:
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