Storm water management and some of its basics
Storm water is the water that originates during precipitation events and it can be also used to apply to the water which originates with snowmelt that enters into the storm water system. Generally storm water that does not into the ground becomes surface runoff and then either it flows directly into the surface waterways or it is channeled into the storm sewers. Storm water contains basically two concerns related to it; one is volume and timing of runoff water and second is related to the potential contaminants that storm water carry with it.
Now a day’s storm water is utilizing as a resource and has an ever growing importance as the world’s global population is increasing and demand exceeding the readily available water. There are various techniques today of storm water harvesting including point source water management and purification of it so that it can be converted into potentially useful for the urban community. Through such techniques urban environments have become self sustaining as far as water problem is concerned. Storm water management has been in the mind of builders and engineer from the time when housing densities and impervious surfaces like road were being put down. Storm water is concerned as a product of rainwater and snowmelt
Issues with storm water arise in such situation when storm water does not soak into the environment or into the ground as this becomes surface water runoff then. There are three factors that make run off important. If storm water is produced in high volumes then it can be assimilated into natural waterways resources or into the storm sewers as the excess of storm water can cause flooding to occur. Degree of flowing will be heavily influenced by the amount of surface area that will be covered by impervious surfaces like roads and buildings.
In a natural site suppose 40 percent of the run off either evaporate in environment or it is transpired by the plants and from the rest roughly 25 percent disappears and 25 percent infiltrates deeply but the problem arises in highly urban areas where almost 75 to 100 percent area is covered by the impervious surfaces like roads, buildings so there is very less amount of water which penetrates into the ground or soak into the environment because of the toxic chemicals in the environment itself. In the urban areas there is also less amount of evapotranspiration.
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